It's usually difficult to speak if you have a tracheostomy. Speech is generated when air passes over the vocal cords at the back of the throat.
But after a tracheostomy most of the air you breathe out will pass through your tracheostomy tube rather than over your vocal cords.
One solution is to use a speaking valve, which is an attachment that sits at the end of the tracheostomy tube and is designed to temporarily close every time you breathe out. This prevents the air leaking out of the tube and allows you to speak.
It can take a while to get used to speaking with the valve. You may be referred to a speech and language therapist for advice and training to help you learn to speak while the tracheostomy tube is in place.
Most people will eventually be able to eat normally with a tracheostomy, although swallowing can be difficult at first.
While in hospital, you may start by taking small sips of water before gradually moving on to soft foods, followed by regular food.
If you have swallowing difficulties, a speech and language therapist can teach you some techniques that may help.
After having a tracheostomy you should be able to continue doing everyday activities, but should avoid vigorous activities for about 6 weeks after the procedure.
It's very important to keep the opening of your tracheostomy clean and dry when you're outside. It will usually be covered with a dressing.
You could also wear a loose piece of clothing, such as a scarf, to stop things like water, sand or dust entering the opening and causing breathing problems.
Cleaning the tracheostomy tube
A tracheostomy tube needs to be cleaned regularly to stop it becoming blocked with fluid and mucus. This may need to be done several times a day.
A specialist tracheostomy nurse will teach you how to take care of your tracheostomy tube before you leave hospital, including how to suction fluid from your windpipe (trachea) and how to clean and change the tube.