Diphtheria is rare in the UK because babies and children are routinely vaccinated against it.
When childhood diphtheria vaccinations are given
The vaccines are given at:
The best way to avoid diphtheria while travelling is to be fully vaccinated against it.
If you're travelling to a part of the world where diphtheria is widespread, you may need a booster vaccination if you were last vaccinated against it more than 10 years ago.
Diphtheria is found in many areas, including:
- the South Pacific
- the Middle East
- eastern Europe
- the Caribbean
Places considered to be high risk can change over time. For up-to-date information about the area you're visiting, check the TravelHealthPro country guides.
For foreign travel, you may be able to get a combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and polio free on the NHS. Ask at your GP surgery.
How diphtheria is spread
Diphtheria is highly contagious. It's spread by coughs and sneezes, or through close contact with someone who's infected.
You can also get it by sharing items, such as cups, cutlery, clothing or bedding, with an infected person.
Symptoms of diphtheria
Symptoms usually start 2 to 5 days after becoming infected.
The main symptoms of diphtheria are:
- a thick grey-white coating at the back of your throat
- a high temperature (fever) of 38C or above
- feeling sick
- sore throat
- swollen glands in your neck
- difficulty breathing and swallowing
If it affects your skin (cutaneous diphtheria), it can cause:
- pus-filled blisters on your legs, feet and hands
- large ulcers surrounded by red, sore-looking skin
When to get medical help
Get urgent medical help if you have symptoms of diphtheria and:
- you're in an area of the world where the infection is widespread
- you have recently returned from somewhere where the infection is widespread
- you have been in close contact with someone who has diphtheria
Diphtheria needs to be treated quickly in hospital to help prevent serious complications, such as breathing difficulties or heart problems.
Treatments for diphtheria
The main treatments are:
- antibiotics to kill the diphtheria bacteria
- medicines that stop the effects of the harmful substances (toxins) produced by the bacteria
- thoroughly cleaning any infected wounds if you have diphtheria affecting your skin
Treatment usually lasts 2 to 3 weeks. Any skin ulcers usually heal within 2 to 3 months, but may leave a scar.
People who have been in close contact with someone who has diphtheria may also need to take antibiotics, or may be given a dose of the diphtheria vaccination.