Nasal polyps are swellings that grow in the lining inside your nose or sinuses, the small cavities above and behind your nose.
They're caused by inflammation of the membranes of the nose and sometimes develop as a result of rhinitis.
Nasal polyps are shaped like teardrops when they're growing and look like a grape on a stem when fully grown.
They vary in size and can be yellow, grey or pink. They can grow on their own or in clusters, and usually affect both nostrils.
If nasal polyps grow large enough, or in clusters, they can interfere with your breathing, reduce your sense of smell and block your sinuses, which can lead to sinusitis.
Small nasal polyps can be shrunk using steroid nasal sprays so they do not cause an obstruction in your nose. Large polyps may need to be surgically removed.
Sinusitis is a common complication of rhinitis. It's where the sinuses become inflamed or infected.
The sinuses naturally produce mucus, which usually drains into your nose through small channels.
But if the drainage channels are inflamed or blocked (for example, because of rhinitis or nasal polyps), the mucus cannot drain away and may become infected.
Common symptoms of sinusitis include:
- a blocked nose, making it difficult to breathe through your nose
- a runny nose
- mucus that drips from the back of your nose down your throat
- a reduced sense of smell or taste
- a feeling of fullness, pressure or pain in the face
- your airways becoming temporarily blocked while you're asleep, which can disturb your sleep (obstructive sleep apnoea)
But these medications are not suitable for everyone, so check the leaflet that comes with them before using them.
For example, children under the age of 16 should not take aspirin, and ibuprofen is not recommended for people with asthma or a history of stomach ulcers. Speak to a GP or pharmacist if you're unsure.
Antibiotics may also be recommended if your sinuses become infected with bacteria.
If you have long-term sinusitis, surgery may be needed to improve the drainage of your sinuses.
Middle ear infections
Middle ear infections can also develop as a complication of nasal problems, including allergic rhinitis.
These infections can occur if rhinitis causes a problem with the Eustachian tube, which connects the back of the nose and middle ear, at the back of the nose.
If this tube does not function properly, fluid can build up in the middle ear behind the ear drum and become infected.
There's also the possibility of infection at the back of the nose spreading to the ear through the Eustachian tube.
The main symptoms of a middle ear infection include:
Ear infections often clear up within a couple of days, but paracetamol or ibuprofen can be used to help relieve fever and pain.
Antibiotics may also be prescribed if the symptoms persist or are particularly severe.