The main symptoms are:
- a chesty cough – you may cough up green or yellow mucus
- wheezing and shortness of breath
- chest pain or discomfort
- a high temperature (fever) of 38C or above
- a headache
- aching muscles
These symptoms can be unpleasant, but they usually get better on their own in about 7 to 10 days.
The cough and mucus can last up to 3 weeks.
Things you can try
If you have a chest infection:
- get plenty of rest
- drink lots of water to loosen the mucus and make it easier to cough up
- raise your head up while sleeping using extra pillows to make breathing easier and clear your chest of mucus
- use painkillers to bring down a fever and ease headaches and muscle pain
- drink a hot lemon and honey drink to relieve a sore throat
- do not let children breathe in steam from a bowl of hot water because of the risk of scalding
- do not give aspirin to children under 16
- do not take cough medicines – there's little evidence to show they help
- do not smoke – it can make your symptoms worse
How to make a hot lemon and honey drink
- Squeeze half a lemon into a mug of boiled water
- Add 1 to 2 teaspoons of honey
- Drink while still warm
Do not give hot drinks to small children.
A pharmacist can help with a chest infection
Your pharmacist can suggest decongestant treatments to help loosen the mucus in your lungs so it's easier to cough up.
Coughing up the mucus helps clear the infection from your lungs.
When to get medical help
See a GP if you have a chest infection and:
- you feel very unwell or your symptoms get worse
- you cough up blood or blood-stained mucus
- you have had a cough for more than 3 weeks
- you're pregnant
- you're over 65
- your immune system is weak – for example, you have a condition like diabetes or you're having chemotherapy
- you have a long-term health condition, such as a heart, lung or kidney condition
You may have pneumonia if your symptoms are severe.
Treatment from a GP
Treatment will depend on what caused your chest infection:
- a virus (like viral bronchitis) – this usually clears up by itself after a few weeks and antibiotics will not help
- bacteria (like pneumonia) – a GP may prescribe antibiotics (make sure you complete the whole course as advised by your GP, even if you start to feel better)
Antibiotics are only used to treat bacterial chest infections. They're not used for treating viral chest infections, such as flu or viral bronchitis, because they do not work for this type of infection.
A sample of your mucus may need to be tested to see what's causing your chest infection.
How to avoid passing chest infections on to others:
- cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze
- wash your hands regularly
- throw away used tissues immediately
How to avoid getting a chest infection
If you keep getting chest infections or you're at a high risk of getting one (for example, because you're over the age of 65 or have a serious long-term health condition), you should:
- ask a GP about the annual flu vaccination – find out if you're eligible for the free flu vaccine
- ask if you should have the pneumococcal vaccine – this helps prevent pneumonia
- stop smoking if you smoke
- cut down on how much alcohol you drink