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The symptoms of IBD include:
- pain, cramps or swelling in the tummy
- recurring or bloody diarrhoea
- weight loss
- extreme tiredness
Not everyone has all of these symptoms, and some people may have extra symptoms, including a high temperature, being sick (vomiting) and anaemia.
The symptoms of IBD can come and go. There may be times when the symptoms are severe (a flare-up), followed by long periods when there are few or no symptoms at all (remission).
There's currently no cure for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.
If you have mild ulcerative colitis, you may need minimal or no treatment and remain well for prolonged periods of time.
Treatment aims to relieve the symptoms and prevent them returning, and includes specific diets, lifestyle changes, medicines and surgery.
Medicines used to treat ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease include:
- aminosalicylates or mesalazines – which can reduce inflammation in the gut
- immunosuppressants – such as steroids or azathioprine to reduce the activity of the immune system
- biological and biosimilar medicines – antibody-based treatments given by injection that target a specific part of the immune system
It's estimated that 1 in 5 people with ulcerative colitis have severe symptoms that do not improve with medicine. In these cases, surgery may be necessary to remove an inflamed section of large bowel (colon).
Around 60 to 75% of people with Crohn's disease will need surgery to repair damage to their digestive system and treat complications of Crohn's disease.
It's unclear what causes IBD, but it's thought to be caused by a combination of factors, including:
- genetics – you're more likely to get IBD if you have a close relative with the condition
- a problem with your immune system
People who smoke are twice as likely to get Crohn's disease than non-smokers.