Blood clots that cause TIAs may form in areas where arteries have been narrowed or blocked over time by the build-up of fatty deposits known as plaques. These plaques are formed during a process called atherosclerosis.
As you get older, your arteries can naturally become narrower, but certain things can dangerously speed up this process. These include:
- high blood pressure (hypertension)
- high cholesterol levels
- excessive alcohol consumption
A type of irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation can also cause a TIA. It can lead to the formation of blood clots that escape from the heart and become lodged in the blood vessels supplying the brain.
Who's most at risk?
Certain things can increase your chances of having a TIA. Some of these factors are changeable – such as your lifestyle.
Some of the main risk factors for TIA are:
- age – although TIAs can happen at any age (including in children and young adults), they're most common in people over 55
- ethnicity – people of south Asian, African or Caribbean descent have a higher TIA risk, partly because rates of diabetes and high blood pressure are higher in these groups
- medical history – other health conditions such as diabetes can increase your risk of a TIA
- weight and diet – your risk of having a TIA is higher if you're overweight and/or have an unhealthy diet high in fat and salt
- smoking and alcohol – smoking and/or regularly drinking excessive amounts of alcohol can increase your TIA risk
Tackling the things you can change will help to lower your risk of having a TIA, or reduce your chances or having a full stroke in the future.